Deciding to get pregnant isn’t so simple as flipping on a lightweight swap. Whereas many people happen to conceive on one amongst their first few tries via good timing, merely as many people ought to work exhausting to find out as soon as they’re fertile.

Sadly, that all-important fertile window could also be unpredictable and elusive. Nonetheless, thankfully, fertility screens could assist.

“A fertility monitor could assist of us desirous to conceive pinpoint the simplest situations for intercourse,” says Monte Swarup, M.D., an Arizona-based OBGYN, who supplies that the info supplied by fertility screens could assist observe your cycles to predict fertility and ovulation, which could make it easier to know when you will have your most interesting probability at conceiving.

On the flip side, some of us benefit from fertility screens to help them naturally stay away from conception, with out birth control. Due to this fact, a wonderful fertility monitor supplies you a broader glimpse into your fertility and reproductive nicely being, allowing you to resolve what to do with that information.

There are a variety of varied sorts of fertility screens, which measure and report on points like your basal physique temperature (BBT), cervical mucus, and hormone ranges, so realizing which kind works most interesting in your physique and your fertility targets isn’t always really easy. Plus, it is a should to bear in mind points like value, consolation, portability, and accuracy—to not level out the protection concerns that come up any time you’re logging delicate nicely being information into one factor web-based, like an app. 

We talked to specialists about which fertility monitor choices to prioritize in your procuring search and browsed via virtually two dozen kinds of screens to hunt out these offering the simplest outcomes for numerous fertility concerns. Whether or not or not you’re attempting to stay away from or achieve a pregnancy; have a nicely being scenario, a weird work schedule, or repeatedly irregular durations; or simply get squeamish in regards to the phrases “cervical mucus,” there’s a fertility monitor designed that may help you—listed below are the simplest fertility screens obtainable in the marketplace in 2022, consistent with our evaluation.

Our Strategies

Best Normal: TempDrop Fertility and Ovulation Tracker


Why We Like It: This cosy gadget takes all the guesswork out of monitoring your every day basal physique temperature.

It’s Value Noting: It’s expensive, and in addition you need the app to view your outcomes.

Your basal physique temperature (BBT) is your at-rest physique temp, and it rises after you ovulate, which makes it one of many important well-known strategies to raised understand the modifications in your fertility all via your menstrual cycle. This can be helpful for people attempting to every acquire and stay away from being pregnant. The Tempdrop is an advanced answer to watch your BBT and get a fowl’s eye view of your fertility, no matter your conception targets.

Because of BBT is your temperature whilst you’re at leisure, you will have to take your temperature very very first thing throughout the morning after an prolonged slumber. Nonetheless that’s not always easy for everyone. “Screens could also be powerful with of us with irregular sleep patterns, [like] shift employees on account of there isn’t always a set circadian rhythm,” says Miriam Bernstein, MD, OBGYN with Oneida Healthcare. “The morning physique basal temperature might be not appropriate due to the physique’s notion of when ‘morning’ actually is.”

Nonetheless that’s the reason we love the Tempdrop. You needn’t bear in mind to take your temperature every day. In its place, merely join the sensor to your increased arm using the versatile and extendable armband, go to sleep, and rise up throughout the morning to a night’s value of temperature readings chances are you’ll add to the Tempdrop app. This suggests chances are you’ll benefit from the Tempdrop in case you’re employed shift hours or rise up repeatedly as a result of it’s always monitoring your BBT.

On the technical side of points, the Tempdrop is cosy to placed on and saves your BBT information throughout the sensor for 30 days. The app moreover means that you can log completely different indicators of fertility or menstruation and, with the premium enhance, can interpret your information for you, offering fertility window predictions. 

Price at time of publication: $199

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Wearable
  • What’s included: Tempdrop sensor, armband and extender, battery, battery substitute instrument, individual information
  • Tracks: Temperature, sleep habits
  • App: Positive
  • FDA-approved: No

Best Moderately priced: iProven Digital Basal Thermometer


Why We Like It: Straightforward and budget-friendly nonetheless environment friendly, this basal thermometer takes quick readings to the a centesimal diploma.

It’s Value Noting: It’s low-tech, which implies there is no backlight or app synchronization.

If taking your every day BBT is an important part of your fertility monitoring, nonetheless you don’t manage to pay for a flowery wearable thermometer similar to the Tempdrop, the iProven Digital Basal Thermometer is a reliable, no-frills answer to get a be taught in your temperature. It takes a learning in merely 60 seconds, a timeframe that makes a distinction whilst you’re lying in mattress very very first thing throughout the morning and itching to face up and start your day. 

You acquired’t get any fancy outcomes or app synchronization with this thermometer, nonetheless you are going to get a defending case, a spare battery, and the freedom to utilize any app or pen-and-paper chart you choose. Offering temperature readings to the a centesimal diploma the place completely different thermometers normally solely go to the tenth, the iProven is further appropriate than its rivals—and it’s obtainable in at decrease than $10, making it a budget-friendly selection that doesn’t skimp on usefulness.

Price at time of publication: $10

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Thermometer
  • What’s included: Thermometer, plastic case, further battery
  • Tracks: Temperature
  • App: No
  • FDA-approved: Positive

Best Wearable: Ava Fertility Tracker


Why We Like It: It measures further fertility indicators than completely different trackers on this guidelines and is FDA-approved.

It’s Value Noting: The wrist placement of the bracelet is cosy nonetheless not finest for detecting an appropriate basal physique temperature.

The Ava Fertility Tracker is a wearable thermometer very similar to the Tempdrop, other than a few key variations. To start, it’s about $100 costlier. Nonetheless the improve in price is wise whilst you account for the reality that it collects further information. In its place of merely temperature, the Ava screens completely different signs of fertility too, like coronary coronary heart cost, respiratory cost, and your cost of perfusion (or how rather a lot blood is flowing via your tissue). It’s moreover worn on the wrist considerably than the upper arm and was the first wearable temperature tracker authorised by the FDA.

The other principal distinction between the Ava and the Tempdrop is app utilization. Whereas you might want to use the Tempdrop app in a restricted functionality to retailer and take into consideration your information (nonetheless can’t acquire fertility prediction info besides you enhance your account), your purchase of the Ava bracelet incorporates a positive number of months of pay as you go app utilization already built-in.

Price at time of publication: $280+

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Wearable
  • What’s included: Ava bracelet, USB charging cable, individual information
  • Tracks: Temperature, pulse, and completely different indicators of fertility
  • App: Positive
  • FDA-approved: Positive

Best Thermometer: Daysy Fertility Monitor


Why We Like It: This little gadget doesn’t merely take your temperature—it interprets your readings to give you deep insights into your fertility.

It’s Value Noting: It’s the costliest selection on this guidelines.

Your BBT is an important metric in understanding your fertility, nonetheless in case you’re feeling some sticker shock over the value of this digital BBT thermometer, that’s understandable! Larger than $300 is masses to spend on a instrument you place beneath your tongue for a few seconds, and we’ll be honest, the Daysy is likely to be chock-full of too many pointless choices to make the payment worthwhile for any individual merely attempting to casually get a better understanding of their cycles and fertility. 

That said, in case you’re getting vital about conceiving and want a gadget that interprets your temperature readings over time and tells you—in no uncertain phrases—whether or not or not or not you’re fertile, then the Daysy is prone to be the high-tech thermometer you’re looking for. The Daysy can’t remind you to take your every day BBT, nonetheless it does nearly all the alternative be simply best for you.

The Daysy doesn’t merely take your temperature and spit out a learning; it info your information and makes use of a specific algorithm to search out out what these readings indicate about your fertility. In its place of supplying you with a temperature diploma and leaving you to find out what to do with it, the Daysy makes use of a color-coded fertility standing system spelling out how fertile (or not) you are. Because of it moreover comes with its private app, chances are you’ll crunch your numbers all through digital ovulation charts, share your info alongside along with your companion or fertility doctor, and observe completely different fertility indicators like cervical mucus and menstruation.

Price at time of publication: $320

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Thermometer
  • What’s included: Daysy thermometer
  • Tracks: Temperature
  • App: Positive
  • FDA-approved: Positive

Best Digital: Clearblue Fertility Monitor


Why We Like It: All of the items it’s advisable course of your test strips and interpret the outcomes is appropriate at your fingertips with this helpful touch-screen digital monitor.

It’s Value Noting: The related payment doesn’t embrace any test strips, so that’s a separate expense you’ll should funds for. 

All the specialists we interviewed said that test strips that detect the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH) in your urine are the best and proper answer to monitor your ovulation. Nonetheless, there are a selection of different methods to course of your urine sample and get the info you need. Digital screens profit from being an in-hand gadget which will be taught your test strips and help you understand your outcomes. The Clearblue Fertility Monitor is every an individual and expert favorite.

In actuality, reproductive and endocrinology specialist Shahin Ghadir, MD, of Southern California Reproductive Coronary heart says his victims normally inform him that the Clearblue Fertility Monitor is appropriate and good at narrowing down the info they need when monitoring their ovulation. 

We love that the gadget choices a giant contact show that you could be merely navigate and tells you, correct on the show, what your possibilities of conceiving are. (One other devices rely upon an net connection, so the Clearblue is excellent for journey.) The gadget moreover supplies you your testing window, making it easier to utilize in case you may’t bear in mind whilst you closing examined or whilst you’re due in your subsequent test. 

Price at time of publication: $119

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Digital monitor
  • What’s included: One digital monitor
  • Tracks: Estrogen, luteinizing hormone
  • App: No
  • FDA-approved: No

Best Testing Strips: Easy@Dwelling 50 Ovulation Test Strips and 20 Being pregnant Test Strips Combo Bundle


Why We Like It: You don’t need explicit devices or apps to get your ovulation outcomes with these strips—you merely seize a urine sample, wait 5 minutes, and voilà.

It’s Value Noting: Should you occur to’re looking for further full fertility testing or interpretation of your outcomes, these strips acquired’t give it to you.

For anyone who likes the idea of testing their urine for hormone surges nonetheless not the idea of spending some big money on a digital monitor or meager numbers of test strips, the 50-count Easy@Dwelling Ovulation Test Strips are the right compromise. 

The strategy for testing your urine for luteinizing hormone (LH) with these strips is similar because it’s for each different ovulation testing gear that incorporates a monitor, moreover there is not a monitor—chances are you’ll merely view your outcomes on the strip itself after 5 minutes. It actually works masses like a being pregnant test; two strains indicate you’re creating in your fertile window (and the darker that second line, the additional fertile you are), whereas one line means your hormone ranges are nonetheless low.

If this sounds barely sophisticated, Easy@Dwelling has that lined, too. Their ovulation predictor app makes it easy to manually enter or scan your test strip outcomes to help interpret your hormone ranges and decide what to do subsequent. And, as a bonus, the gear consists of 20 HCG strips, so chances are you’ll test for being pregnant from one month to the next.

Price at time of publication: $20

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Testing strips
  • What’s included: 50 luteinizing hormone test strips, 20 being pregnant test strips
  • Tracks: Luteinizing hormone
  • App: No
  • FDA-approved: Positive

Best Vaginal: kegg Fertility Tracker


Why We Like It: The kegg assesses the usual of your cervical mucus in minutes, detecting ranges of electrolytes that rise and fall alongside along with your fertile window.

It’s Value Noting: You have to be cosy inserting a instrument into your vagina, and points like intercourse, menstruation, and vaginal lotions or medicines can intervene alongside along with your cervical mucus readings.

We’ve talked about BBT and luteinizing hormone as key components in pinpointing your fertile window. Nonetheless, there’s one completely different concern: cervical mucus, which is able to get thicker and additional, properly, mucousy the nearer you get to ovulation. You can examine to judge the usual of your cervical mucus manually, nonetheless not all people has the time (or the stomach, in truth) to do it themselves. 

If that sounds comparable to you, the kegg Fertility Tracker can mechanically detect the usual of your cervical mucus for you, measuring the electrolytes in your mucus and sending that information to the kegg app. The app then seems at your whole information and provides you a prediction about your fertile window, like whilst you’re extra prone to be fertile (and will try to conceive, if that’s your intention) or in case you nonetheless have some time to go sooner than ovulation. 

Notably, the kegg can do that each one in two minutes. You merely insert it into your vagina consistent with the instructions, anticipate it to take its learning, then sync it to the app in your outcomes. Within the meantime, the kegg serves a significantly unrelated nonetheless helpful objective: it can most likely moreover coach you via a brief set of kegel exercise routines on daily basis, which strengthen your pelvic flooring and can improve the accuracy of your mucus learning.

Price at time of publication: $260

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Vaginal monitor
  • What’s included: Monitor, charging set, individual information
  • Tracks: Top quality of cervical mucus
  • App: Positive
  • FDA-approved: No

Best App and Monitor: Inito Observe & Confirm Ovulation & Fertility Monitor


Why We Like It: Together with estrogen and luteinizing hormone, the Inito tracks progesterone ranges, which can enable you to confirm ovulation.

It’s Value Noting: You’ll desire a appropriate iPhone to connect the gadget and take into consideration your information.

For people who just like the idea of a digital monitor nonetheless want way more fertility information and information entry, the Inito monitor expands on the ovulation monitoring provided when compared with completely different decisions on this guidelines (such as a result of the Clearblue). In its place of getting the outcomes of your urine sample on a digital touchscreen monitor, you clip and sync the Inito to your iPhone, open the Inito app, and obtain entry to detailed fertility charts and conception options. 

Nonetheless the true standout operate of the Inito is being able to measure estrogen, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone (most ovulation test strips don’t confirm progesterone ranges). Bigger ranges of progesterone can confirm that ovulation occurred, so the Inito strips can not solely signal whilst you’re about to be fertile or are in the intervening time in your fertile window, they’ll present the peace of ideas that comes with realizing you undoubtedly ovulated. The other good news? You solely need one test strip to amass all this info, not separate strips for each measurement.

Price at time of publication: $149

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Digital monitor
  • What’s included: Inito monitor, 15 test strips, phone attachment clip
  • Tracks: Estrogen, luteinizing hormone, progesterone
  • App: Positive
  • FDA-approved: Positive

Best for Ease of Use: Stix Ovulation Exams


Why We Like It: These all-in-one sticks work like a being pregnant test, so that they don’t require rather a lot coping with and are easy to be taught.

It’s Value Noting: You solely get seven sticks per discipline, so that they’re not as cost-effective as test strips.

Should you occur to can take a being pregnant test, you might want to use the Stix Ovulation Exams, which work similar to frequent ovulation test strips moreover that you just simply don’t ought to dip the strip in pre-collected urine or insert it proper right into a digital monitor to be be taught. You can pee on a stick, similar to you do for a being pregnant test, lay it on a flat flooring for a few minutes, and get your outcomes. 

The Stix exams are easy to be taught, with the all-important second line confirming a surge in ovulation hormones displaying inside a distinctly completely completely different heart-shaped window than the administration line. We don’t love that you just simply solely get seven exams per gear, and this isn’t most likely probably the most eco-friendly selection spherical, nonetheless for anyone who merely doesn’t must mess with urine assortment or repeatedly clear a digital monitor, the consolation and ease of use with the Stix gear may be value it. 

Price at time of publication: $19

Product Particulars:

  • Sort: Test strips and reader
  • What’s included: 7 ovulation test sticks
  • Tracks: Luteinizing hormone
  • App: No
  • FDA-approved: No

How We Chosen the Best Fertility Screens

To hunt out the simplest fertility screens, we consulted with three specialists—an OBGYN and two reproductive endocrinology specialists—to be taught the best way they work, what they’ll and might’t do in relation to determining your fertility, and which choices it’s best to be conscious whereas looking for a fertility monitor that almost all precisely matches you.

Our specialists usually prioritized simplicity of use and accuracy over value and kind, noting that the simplest fertility monitor is normally one chances are you’ll reliably use. With that in ideas, we opted for a mix of varied sorts of screens, along with each little factor from urine test strips to wearable devices to thermometers, and likewise lined quite a lot of pricing. If a monitor was expensive, we didn’t primarily rule it out, nonetheless we did make certain that it was value its ticket in the case of consolation and accuracy.

What to Know About Fertility Screens

What’s a Fertility Monitor? 

A fertility monitor is a catch-all time interval for any gadget which will help you resolve your fertility, notably regarding ovulation and potentially getting pregnant. There are a few alternative routes fertility screens can do this, nonetheless a fertility monitor is any gadget you benefit from to predict your fertile window and pinpoint while you would conceive. 

How Fertility Screens Work

Although fertility screens have alternative routes of determining your fertility, all of them rely upon taking readings of your BBT, cervical mucus, or urine-based hormone ranges after which report that information once more to you each in an app or on the gadget itself. Most screens observe only one type of information (like thermometers, as an illustration, which resolve your BBT). You may must benefit from a number of type of monitor for max accuracy when predicting your fertile window. 

Accuracy of Fertility Screens

The specialists we interviewed indicated that luteinizing hormone (LH) testing strips are usually most likely probably the most appropriate answer to pinpoint your fertile window. Lots of these merchandise declare to have an accuracy cost throughout the extreme 90s, nonetheless it’s important to know their limitations.

“All of these companies try to advertise a product and no monitor is 100% appropriate, nor does it current as full of an answer as care with a provider,” says Dr. Bernstein, noting {{that a}} monitor could enable you to decide when to conceive, nonetheless can’t diagnose or cope with underlying medical points that is likely to be affecting your fertility.

Widespread factors that impact conception, Dr. Bernstein says, embrace blocked fallopian tubes, low-quality sperm, uterine abnormalities, egg top quality, and number of follicles. Uterine fibroids may also be a motive for infertility. And, in spite of everything, inconsistencies in the way you make the most of your chosen fertility monitor—like taking LH readings on the improper time or skipping BBT readings—can tremendously decrease any monitor’s effectiveness.

Sadly, numerous these factors can have an impact in your fertility prospects throughout the short- and long-term.

“Counting on a monitor for too prolonged can lead to a delay in victims on the lookout for medical session with their OB/GYN or a reproductive endocrinologist specializing in every feminine and male infertility components,” says Dr. Bernstein.

Types of Fertility Screens

There are a variety of varied sorts of screens that work by measuring ranges of hormones in your urine, BBT, or cervical mucus (or some combination of these three metrics). 

Wearable screens

Wearable screens embrace bands worn in your increased arm or wrist, typically in a single day, so that you just don’t have to remember to take your BBT whilst you rise up. Since your basal physique temperature rises shortly after ovulation, this fertility monitor is useful for confirming that ovulation has occurred. When used over time, such a thermometer could enable you to further exactly observe your cycles and predict whilst you may have an upcoming fertile window.

Vaginal screens

Vaginal screens are inserted into your vagina for a predetermined dimension of time. They’re designed to measure the usual of your cervical mucus and give you a warning to elevated fertility, signaling it’s time to stay away from being pregnant or try to acquire one. 

Urine-testing screens

You’ll desire a set of urine test strips and an digital learning gadget for such a monitor. While you’ve collected a urine sample, dip the stick throughout the urine, insert it throughout the gadget, and anticipate it to give you outcomes. Counting on the gadget, you might presumably observe your LH, progesterone, and estrogen ranges to search out out the place exactly you are in your cycle. 

Basal physique thermometers

This type of monitor works within the similar means as a result of the wearable screens, moreover you don’t actually placed on it: you merely take your oral temperature very very first thing throughout the morning sooner than getting off the bed, within the similar means, you will each different oral thermometer. It’s a lot much less helpful than a wearable gadget nonetheless rather a lot cheap. 

Your Effectively being Needs

As a result of the varied sorts of fertility screens share completely different types of particulars about your cycle, it’s important to ponder why you desire a monitor throughout the first place. According to Dr. Ghadir, ovulation kits that confirm for a rise in LH are most likely probably the most useful for attempting to conceive. On the same time, he notes that these could help slim down the ovulation window, nonetheless they’re typically a lot much less useful for people with irregular cycles who don’t ovulate normally. 

“Should you occur to’re discovering inaccuracies or an absence of ovulation [with these kits], it’s most definitely smarter to hunt the recommendation of with a fertility specialist earlier considerably than later,” Dr. Ghadir says. 

Should you occur to’re attempting to stay away from being pregnant, monitoring indicators like BBT day-after-day, irrespective of the place you are in your cycle, could assist understand the big picture of your fertility—nonetheless they do require quite a lot of work, says Dr. Ghadir, and solely give you retroactive information (i.e., you already ovulated) versus proactive information (you’re about to ovulate). 

Your Life-style

When you will have a fairly frequent interval, adjust to a usually comparable schedule and routine day-after-day, and aren’t in a rush to conceive, chances are you’ll be succesful to rely upon a monitor that collects every day info or tracks your fertility over a month, like a BBT thermometer or wearable gadget. 

However when your life is busy or hectic, in case you’re employed odd hours or journey repeatedly, in case your sleep is repeatedly disrupted in case you breastfeed or take medicines that may intervene alongside along with your fertility readings, or just usually can’t rely upon being able to confirm your fertility day-after-day reliably, one factor like an LH testing strip (which you solely benefit from at positive situations of the month) is prone to be a extra good choice.  

Privateness and Security Concerns 

When Roe v. Wade was overturned throughout the spring of 2022, many people had concerns about how their fertility information is probably going for use within the occasion that they chose so as to add it to an internet-based app. There are some privateness concerns to focus on, says Dr. Swarup, since a whole bunch of 1000’s of people use these apps to help observe menstrual cycles and don’t perceive how their information is getting used: “It is likely to be shared with third occasions or most likely purchased.” 

There’s no proof that that’s occurring with fertility apps (or that individuals are being singled out for using these apps to hint their fertility or make pregnancy-related choices), nonetheless that doesn’t indicate it can most likely’t happen. You must be as cautious with fertility apps as you are about each different app the place you willingly share your private and personal nicely being information. 

In numerous phrases, be taught the app’s disclosures and privateness statements considerably than merely clicking “I consent,” and attain out to the makers of these apps in case you will have any persevering with concerns about security.

Your Questions, Answered

What’s one of many easiest methods to hint fertility?

According to Dr. Swarup, the LH test sticks are most likely probably the most reliable instrument. By measuring the levels of this hormone in your urine, chances are you’ll detect when your ovaries are releasing an egg; this provides you about 12 to 36 hours to attempt conceiving. “LH sticks are the one proactive answer to tell you will ovulate,” explains Dr. Swarup.

Completely different long-term methods, like BBT thermometers, could observe your fertility by capturing how your cycle modifications over time. 

Do fertility screens work? 

Most fertility screens do what they declare to do reasonably properly, nonetheless Dr. Swarup warns they’re nonetheless not 100% appropriate in guaranteeing conception or stopping a being pregnant. Plus, many outside components can intervene with the data they give you; each little factor from a nasty night of sleep or illness to an absence of ovulation or a further vital reproductive problem can impact the accuracy of the readings you collect.

Taken individually, these screens could “work” in one of the best ways they’re supposed, nonetheless getting a extremely useful picture of your fertility and reproductive nicely being normally contains monitoring plenty of indicators of fertility or, increased however, consulting with a fertility specialist about your reproductive nicely being.

How appropriate are fertility screens? 

There’s quite a lot of accuracy that depends upon largely on the type of monitor you’re using and the best way precisely you place it to make use of. In numerous phrases, an LH test strip may be 99% appropriate when used 100% precisely, nonetheless in case you neglect to collect a urine sample throughout the useful window of time, which will impact its accuracy. The similar goes for a thermometer—it could work terribly properly at taking your BBT, nonetheless in case you’re taking readings at completely completely different situations or waking as much as make use of the bathroom half-hour sooner than you take your temp, it acquired’t be as appropriate.

How rather a lot do top quality fertility screens value? 

There is a selection within the value of fertility screens. Whereas probably the most reasonably priced monitor on our guidelines, the iProven Basal Thermometer, is about $10, whereas the costliest one, the Daysy Fertility Monitor, is larger than $300. 

To make points way more sophisticated, the worth of a monitor would possibly or may not matter all that rather a lot. 

“You get what you pay for [with fertility monitors], nonetheless in the long run it’s advisable decide which one works properly for you and what you are feeling further cosy using,” says Dr. Ghadir. “If an reasonably priced one works properly for you, good—however when not, chances are high you will should spend further [for a higher quality monitor].”

The good news is that, nonetheless rather a lot you spend on a fertility monitor, they’re typically lined by FSA and HSA plans. (Confirm alongside along with your plan to substantiate, though.)

Who We Are

Sarah Bradley has been a contract creator since 2017, tackling nicely being commerce articles, product critiques, and procuring guides on each little factor from dry pores and pores and skin moisturizers and wart removers to menstrual cups and toothbrushes for braces. She has personally examined nicely being merchandise, so is conscious of what makes a implausible product stand out from a list of positive ones.

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